Mind and Destiny

“I make no pretension to patriotism. So long as my voice can be heard ... I will hold up America to the lightning scorn of moral indignation. In doing this, I shall feel myself discharging the duty of a true patriot; for he is a lover of his country who rebukes and does not excuse its sins. It is righteousness that exalteth a nation while sin is a reproach to any people.”- Frederick Douglass

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Location: Delhi, N.Y., United States

The author and his webmaster, summer of 1965.

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Bay of Pigs


During the presidential campaign, between Dwight Eisenhower's Vice- President, Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy, Eisenhower was accused of not doing enough to prevent Fidel Castro from overthrowing the American-backed dictator Fulgencio Batista.  However, the Eisenhower's administration had already planned an invasion of Cuba, which was to be handled by the CIA.  By the time of JFK's inauguration, the order to invade was the only piece of the plan to be put into place.

The Eisenhower plan was to overthrow a government with which our country was not at war.  And, it included a directive that our government should not appear to be involved.

By October the Castro administration had already presented evidence to the United Nations that our CIA was hiring and training mercenaries.  Our involvement had never been much of a secret.

Senator William Fulbright told Kennedy that this sort of hypocrisy was just the sort of thing of which the United States accused the Soviets.  Under Secretary of State Chester Bowles advised Secretary of State Dean Rusk that the plan was wrong on both moral and legal grounds.

Those in favor of the invasion plan included former Vice President Richard Nixon, Robert F. Kennedy, and Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara.

On April 12, 1961, JFK announced that he had no intention of intervening in Cuban affairs, but five days later, an invasion force that had been assembled in Guatemala departed in six ships from a port in Nicaragua, and a day later American-backed Cuban exiles began to bomb airfields near two points in the Bay of Pigs and the Zapata swamps in Cuba.

The Bay of Pigs invasion was intended to provoke an uprising against Castro.  Instead, it became a military victory for Castro and remains a symbol of Cuban resistance to American aggression.

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