Mind and Destiny

“I make no pretension to patriotism. So long as my voice can be heard ... I will hold up America to the lightning scorn of moral indignation. In doing this, I shall feel myself discharging the duty of a true patriot; for he is a lover of his country who rebukes and does not excuse its sins. It is righteousness that exalteth a nation while sin is a reproach to any people.”- Frederick Douglass

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Location: Delhi, N.Y., United States

The author and his webmaster, summer of 1965.

Saturday, November 12, 2016

Invisible Empire


Abraham Lincoln’s Vice president, Andrew Johnson was a racist, who after Lincoln’s assassination did everything he could to undercut the abolition of slavery, and angered northern abolitionist.  Congress would pass bills to protect freed slaves in the South, and President Johnson would veto the legislation. Then, Congress would override his veto and enact the legislation anyway. 
The 13th Amendment prohibit slavery, except in the case of punishment for a crime.  The 14th Amendment defined a citizen as any person born in or naturalized in the U.S.  It overturned the Dred Scott ruling of the Supreme Court, that had claimed Black people were not eligible for citizenship.  The 14th Amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were American citizens including African Americans.
Those rights didn’t exist in real life, in the former Confederate States, it was a reign of terror.
In 1866, President Andrew Johnson traveled around the country campaigning against reelecting those members of Congress who opposed him in their congressional districts.  He’d try to convince people to vote them out of office, and narrowly avoided being impeached by the House.
Thousands of former slaves were killed in the South after the civil war, and the lead-up to the 1868 election.  The Republican Party elected President Ulysses S. Grant, who tried to control the violence, by signing the Enforcement Acts in 1870 to 1871.
Those Enforcements Acts were designed to fulfill the promise of freedom and equality, in the South.  One of the Enforcement Acts was the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871.  The Ku Klux Klan Act announced that if the Southern states wouldn’t do something about the KKK’s invisible empire of racist violence in those states, the federal government would.
Is it possible, that the invisible empire just won a national election?

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